Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .

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Low-latency, low-cost, and reliable FiWi access networks will also challrnges a key role in realizing future smart grid communications infrastructures to facilitate the convergence of Internet technology and renewable energies via an integrated and seamless Energy Internet and to usher in a sustainable Third Industrial Revolution economy.

After elaborating on the rationale behind the Third Industrial Revolution and its underlying Energy Internetwe will describe in more detail how Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge and help realize the vision of the smart grid and create new exciting opportunities for telecommunication service providers, municipalities, and utilities to roll out dependable low-latency FiWi based smart grid communications infrastructures and split the value chain into multitier business models.

Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Access Networks in an Age of Convergence: Past, Present, and Future

Clearly, this figure illustrates that an increasing percentage of broadband subscribers rely on fiber access technologies at the expense of legacy DSL solutions. The wireless channels are statically assigned to each radio such that interference is minimized. Today, Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge in Europe, North America, and other regions worldwide in order to create an interactive, integrated, and seamless Energy Internet infrastructure for the so-called Third Industrial Revolution TIR economy, which goes well beyond current austerity measures and has been officially endorsed by the European Commission as economic growth roadmap toward a competitive low carbon society by [ ], as discussed in more detail next.

Future FiWi access networks will leverage on next-generation PON and WLAN technologies to meet the ever-increasing bandwidth requirements of new and emerging video-dominated applications and services. FiWi networks and access networks in general suffer from a major shortcoming.

In the former opportuinties, the throughput of FiWi networks is limited by the bandwidth bottleneck and interferences of communications in the wireless subnetwork. The presented simulation results indicate that DARA outperforms other routing algorithms such as minimum hop routing, shortest path routing, and predictive throughput routing in terms of delay.

As a consequence, the out-of-order packets deteriorate the performance of the transmission control protocol TCP. In [ 4748 ], a new routing algorithm, called capacity and delay aware routing CaDARwas proposed with the objective to distribute the radio capacity of a single-radio wireless mesh network node optimally among its outgoing links such that the average delay is minimized.


Note, however, that FMC does not necessarily imply the physical convergence of networks. In the first phase, the algorithm identifies the primary ONU i.

This is due to the fact that the MMSE precoding is able to mitigate the mutual interference of the RAUs such that both mobile terminals can receive data at high amd rates using the same time and frequency resources, at the expense of a significant overhead in the uplink. When all ONUs have equal load, traffic from wireless mesh source nodes tends to go toward the closest gateway using fewer wireless hops, which translates into shorter delays.

Current requirements for CPRI are very demanding in terms of maximum line rate 9. Femtocellswhich need to be more autonomous and self-adaptive than traditional small cellsare now widely deployed as small, inexpensive, and low-power BSs. FiWi research inquires new methods of optical RF generation exploiting fiber nonlinearities oppoortunities various modulation techniques.

While DSL suffers from severe distance and noise limitations, HFC falls short to efficiently carry data traffic due to its upstream noise and crosstalk accumulation. Otherwise, the service request is rejected.

Electrical power grids represent one of the most important critical infrastructures of our society. However, these data packets may arrive at the OLT out of order due to the fact that each path in general has a different delay.

Very recently, however, in their seminal work on quantifying the impact of different backhaul topologies mesh versus tree and backhaul technologies e. While single-mode fibers SMFs are typically found in outdoor optical networks, many buildings have preinstalled multimode fiber MMF cables. Fiber-ireless subscribers across OECD countries by challengea The integration of solar-powered wireless sensors and low-power fiber optic sensors into a PON was experimentally demonstrated in [ 84 ].

OBWMA supports two traffic classes. Furthermore, DARA is able to improve load balancing and alleviate congestion compared to minimum opprtunities and shortest path routing algorithms. Wireless access networks, on the other hand, potentially go almost everywhere but provide a highly bandwidth-constrained transmission channel susceptible to a variety of impairments.

More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to that gateway become stale and packets destined for the primary gateway are rerouted through live PGG paths. In a wireless front-end with multiple-radio mesh nodes, netwogks is important to assign the wireless channels efficiently such that contention is reduced. Arguing that due to its unique properties optical fiber is likely to entirely replace copper wires in the near-to midterm, netwoorks will elaborate on the final frontier of optical networks, namely, the convergence with their wireless counterparts.


This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains their role in emerging FiWi networks.

Bringing fiber all the way to buildings gives rise to FTTB networks. The future Energy Internet aims at not only addressing the reliability issues of current power grids but also offering several additional major benefits. In the downstream direction, the central hub of GROW-Net deploys a tunable laser, which can reach different optical terminals by tuning the laser to the respective wavelength channel supported by the intended optical terminal.

The capacity of wireless mesh networks is limited.

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities – Semantic Scholar

The proposed implementation can support advanced path diversity techniques that use a combination of transmission via several APs and multihop relaying, for example, cooperative diversity or multihop diversity. More precisely, links with higher predicted delays are given higher weights and vice versa. This trend is expected to become even more pronounced over the next couple of decades.

The primary gateway for a given mesh router is the gateway with the minimum delay path. In this architecture, the CO interconnects remote nodes RNs via a dual-fiber ring. It minimizes the average packet delay in the wireless front-end and reduces the packet loss of FiWi access networks significantly.

Optical and wireless technologies can be thought of as quite complementary and will expectedly coexist over the next fiber-wirreless. If the overall delay is smaller than a prespecified delay bound the service request is accepted.

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities

A plethora of enabling optical and wireless network technologies and QoS provisioning techniques exists for FiWi access networks. Section 5 provides an outlook and outlines the road ahead for future FiWi access networks. View at Google Scholar Z. View at Google Scholar P.

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To help identify open key research fuber-wireless for NG-PONs and converged FiWi broadband access networks, it is important to consider emerging trends in related areas in order to shift the post NG-PON2 research focus from mere capacity provisioning to more lucrative solution offerings by developing holistic groundbreaking solutions across multiple economic sectors other than telecommunications per se.

To enhance the reliability of the wireless link, the CO sends information to two different APs path diversity. See our FAQ for additional information. Upon reception of a new service request, the access gateway calculates the transmission and propagation delays by taking the wireless network conditions and traffic profile into account.