Centro de Investigación y Control de la Calidad (CICC) · Centro Nacional de Alimentación (CNA); Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Biotoxinas Marinas. Actividades del Laboratorio Comunitario de Referencia de Biotoxinas Marinas. In : Avances y Tendencias en Fitoplancton Tóxino y Biotoxinas (ISBN. XIII Reunión Ibérica de Algas Tóxicas y biotoxinas marinas Vigo (Spain), th June CLIMATE CHANGE DRIVERS IMPACTS.

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Most regulations are set for PSP toxins as a group. Until now, five groups of shellfish toxins have been distinguished, namely:. However, mid-water exchange within regional seas for example the North Sea, Irish Sea or English Channel is less efficient than within oceanic waters.

Biotoxina mariña

DSP toxin production may vary considerably among dinoflagellate species and among regional and seasonal morphotypes in one species. A few dozen countries have regulations for PSP toxins. In fatal cases, respiratory paralysis occurs within 2 to 12 hours of consumption of the PSP contaminated food.

It is not clear why some micro-algal species produce toxins. The known organisms producing DSP toxins were not observed in water samples collected at that time. The number of dinoflagellate cells per litre of water needed to contaminate shellfish is also variable.

During the past two decades, the frequency, intensity and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms has increased, along with the number of toxic compounds found in the marine food chain.

¿Qué son las biotoxinas?

It is this lack of warning signal that has contributed to the dread of ciguatera poisoning De Fouw et al. The causative marnias the excitatory amino acid domoic acid or DA was produced by the diatom species Pseudo-nitzschiapungens f.


The causative marrinas, the ciguatoxins, accumulate through the food chain, from small herbivorous fish grazing on the coral reefs into organs of marimas carnivorous fish that feed on them Angibaud and Rambaud, ; Lehane, Acid precipitation can further increase the mobility of humic substances and trace metals in soils Hallegraeff, As a result, blooms can suddenly appear in surface waters that are devoid of nutrients and seem incapable of supporting such prolific growth Anderson, Non-motile algae cannot easily get to this layer whereas motile algae, such as the dinoflagellates, can thrive.

Fast-growing algae quickly strip away nutrients in the upper layer, leaving nitrogen and phosphorus only below the interface of the layers, called the pycnocline. Ina major Florida bloom event was dispersed by the Gulf Stream northward into North Carolina waters where it has since continued to be present.

It is even possible that algal species which are normally not toxic may be rendered toxic when exposed to atypical nutrient regimes e. The most affected areas seem to be Europe and Japan. It was then that azaspiracid formerly called Killary Toxin-3 or KT3 was identified and the new toxic syndrome was called azaspiracid poisoning AZP. The PSP toxins are produced mainly by dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Alexandrium, which may occur both in the tropical and moderate climate zones.

On the other hand, some species can bloom so densely, under exceptional conditions in sheltered bays, that they indiscriminately kill fish and invertebrates due to oxygen depletion. DSP toxins are produced usually by dinoflagellates that belong to the genera Dinophysis spp. The conditions for an algal bloom are not yet fully elucidated but the phenomenon is probably influenced by climatic and hydrographic circumstances Van Egmond and Speijers, DSP incidences, or at least the presence of DSP toxins, appear to be increasing and DSP toxins producing algae and toxic bivalves are frequently reported from new areas.


Symptoms of human PSP intoxication vary from a slight tingling or numbness to complete respiratory paralysis. Some algal species already produce toxins at low abundances of some hundreds of cells per litre, while other algal species must occur in some millions of cells per litre in order to cause any harm.

IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme

Most of the harmful species have a restricted distribution pattern but some harmful species have a worldwide distribution Hallegraeff et al. In buotoxinas past, the ciguatera food poisoning in humans was highly localized to coastal, often island communities of indigenous peoples. However, as yet it is unclear whether the increase is real, whether it could be a consequence of improved identification, detection and medical registration, or whether it is due to expanded shellfish culture and consumption.

The most important marine phycotoxins are shellfish toxins and ciguatoxins. The second group, neutral toxins, consists of polyether-lactones of the pectenotoxin group PTXs.

The fat soluble DSP toxins accumulate in the fatty tissue of the bivalves. These PSP toxins are accumulated by shellfish grazing on algae producing these toxins.

DSP symptoms are diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain starting 30 minutes to a few hours after ingestion and complete recovery occurs within three days.