Image analysis software for measuring layer thickness and porosity on inconel coating samples as per ASTM B ASTM B Test Method for Measurement of Metal and Oxide Coating Thickness by. Microscopical Examination of Cross Section. This test method covers. The results stated above relate only to the specific items tested. Information and statements in this report are derived from material, information.

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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. This will determine the suitability of the method for measuring the thickness of thin coatings. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

This is especially applicable to the chemicals cited in Table X2. E 3 Methods of Preparation of Metallographic Specimens2 3.

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Summary of Test Method 3. The thickness of the asrm section is measured with an optical microscope. NOTE 1—These techniques will be familiar to experienced metallographers but some guidance is given in Section 5 and in Appendix Asrm for less experienced operators. Current edition approved Feb. Originally published as B — Last previous edition B — Edge rounding can be caused by improper mounting, grinding, polishing, or etching. It is usually minimized by overplating the test specimen before mounting.

Removal of coating material during surface preparation for overplating can cause a low-thickness measurement. Excessive etching produces a poorly de?

ASTM B – Coating Thickness by Cross Section / X-Section

The apparent boundary may be poorly de? To verify the absence of smearing, the coating thickness should be measured and the polishing, etching, and thickness measurement repeated.

If possible, the magni? Errors of several percent are not unrealistic unless the scale has been calibrated or has been certi? The distance between two lines of a stage micrometer used for the calibration shall be known to within 0. If a stage micrometer is not certi? A generally satisfactory means of calibration is to assume that the stated length of the full scale is asym, to measure each subdivision with a? The measurement will be no more accurate than the calibration of the eyepiece.


As calibration is operator dependent, the eyepiece shall be calibrated by the person making the measurement. Poor quality lenses could preclude accurate measurements.

Sometimes image sharpness can be improved by using monochromatic light.

A change in tube length may occur when the eyepiece is repositioned within the tube, when the focus of the eyepiece tube is changed, and, for some microscopes, when the? Preparation of Cross Sections 6.

Some typical etchants are described in Appendix X2. Precision and Bias 9.

Under good conditions, when using an optical microscope, the method is capable of giving an absolute measuring accuracy of 0. It is not reasonable to specify only one set of techniques, ast it is impractical to include all suitable techniques. The techniques described in this appendix are intended as guidance for metallographers not experienced in measurements of coating thickness. For additional guidance see Methods E 3. This is usually achieved by overplating the specimen with a coating at least ?

For hard, brittle coatings for example oxide or chromium coatings tightly wrapping the specimen in soft aluminum foil before mounting has proved successful.

It is better to overplate zinc with cadmium and vice versa. If, before grinding, reference marks are inscribed on the side of the mount, any inclination from horizontal is easily measurable. Initial grinding should employ or grade abrasive to reveal the true specimen pro?

If an adtm high degree of surface?

This asfm be minimized by totally immersing abrasive papers in a lubricant during grinding or by using a copious? If abrasive particles do become embedded, they may be removed by applying a short, light hand polish with metal polish after grinding and before diamond?

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Some typical etchants are given in Appendix X2. The latter has a lower precision. An image-splitting eyepiece is advantageous for thin coatings on rough substrate surfaces. Measurement of the image projected on to a ground-glass plate is usually less satisfactory because of the lack of sharpness of the image and b48 legibility of the ruler when the projected image is visible.

Such a movement during the measurement can cause an erroneous measurement at moderate and high magni? This can be minimized h487 completing the measurement quickly and by measuring each interval twice, once from left to right and once from right to left. For gold, lead, silver, nickel and copper coatings on steel, copper, and copper alloys. Etches steel, copper, and qstm alloys. For determination of thickness of individual layers of multilayer coatings of nickel on steel and copper alloys; asym each layer of nickel by identifying structures.


Etches nickel; excessive attack on steel and copper alloys. For tin and tin alloy coatings on copper and copper alloys. Etches copper and copper alloys.

This etchant should be freshly prepared. For nickel and copper coatings on aluminum and its alloys. Etches aluminum and its alloys. For nickel and copper on zinc-based alloys. Also suitable for zinc b4877 cadmium on steel. Etches zinc, zinc-based alloys and cadmium. For anodized aluminum alloys. For nickel on copper and its alloys. Swab with a fresh solution.

For silver and gold on copper and nickel alloys and steel. For a microscope there is a theoretical limit of resolution determined by the numerical aperture NA of the objective.

This theoretical limit is approached by good quality microscopes. For practical purposes better resolution cannot be obtained regardless of the quality of the optics asgm of the total magni? That is, for practical purposes, greater magni? Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by asym responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every? Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.

Your comments will receive careful consideration at asrm meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a b4877 hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phonefaxor service astm.