APOSTILA DE BROMATOLOGIA PDF
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Trade names are used in this publication solely for the purpose of providing specific information. Mention of a trade name does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the U. Department of Agriculture or an endorsement by the Department over other products not mentioned. The authors wish to acknowledge the following for their contribu- tions in developing the detergent apparatus:. Neutral-detergent cell-wall 8 Acid-detergent lignin 9 Permanganate lignin, cellulose, insoluble ash, and silica 9 Acid-detergent cutin 1 Crucible cleaning 1 Acid-detergent nitrogen 1 Pepsin-insoluble nitrogen 12 Hot-water-insoluble matter and its nitrogen content Comparison of hot and cold sample weighing 17 Estimation of nutritive value from chemical data 18 Literature cited Laboratory evaluation of forage is essentially aimed at obtaining analytical data that predict the extent of biological degradation under speci- fied conditions, animals, organisms, and time.
In general, an in vitro rumen fermentation re- flects the factors known and unknown limiting availability of forage to the digesting organism. The analyst can assay only known constituents. The assays are for things that are expedient to handle, are known, or are considered important, and its evaluation is valid only if the principals concerned are dominant in the sample. For ex- ample, it makes little sense to expect lignin to be a good predictor of digestibility if silica or some other factor is a more important variable.
In vitro fermentations will be influenced by all factors and inhibitors known and unknown. The in vitro, however, does not disclose anything re- garding the nature of the limiting factor. This latter task of identification remains the duty of chemical studies. An attempt has been made to cover the prin- cipal problems in technique encountered in these procedures. These include sample preparation, filtration and washing, and efficiency in han- dling large numbers of samples.
Ultimate lab- oratory efficiency is tied to the precision of dupli- cates and the repeatability of values. Handling of samples in drying and weighing and in ashing and reweighing is also discussed.
In general, equipment that is used for crude fiber may be adapted to the detergent fiber pro- cedures. The reflux apparatus described is more convenient and cheaper than many other types available. However, if a laboratory contains a reflux apparatus for crude fiber, it may be used without modification. Other types of reflux apparatus probably are suitable if they conform to the following criteria: In general, oil baths and large hotplates are not satisfactory for quantitative work.
The filtration apparatus described is highly recommended.
Forage Fiber Analysis
In general, filtration manifolds suitable for crude fiber do not adapt well bromatologiq they conform to the following specifications. Samples that contain appreciable amounts of. Much difficulty is avoided by having an adequate filtering ap- paratus and by using proper technique.
The main requirement is a filter manifold system with receivers for at least six crucibles.
Filtra- tion must be individually controlled for each crucible. Experience has shown that filtration of a difficult sample niust begin with little to no vacuum and then be gradually increased. Often a very significant volume can rbomatologia filtered without any vacuum. The addition of asbestos to the sample may help filtration, but this involves the laborious operation of preparing the asbestos before use and also makes subsequent analyses on the residue more difficult or impossible.
For convenience and most efficient routine operations, equipment must be situated so that the operator can perform on a regularly timed basis; also some extra time for incidental opera- tions that arise should be allowed. It is very im.
Forage Fiber Analysis – Aparatos, reagentes procedimentos e aplicações da análise
An ashing oven equip- ped with a temperature regulator to prevent the glass crucibles from melting is required for apostial the crucibles. Standardized methods in the laboratory are mandatory for obtaining precise analytical re- sults.
Enough equipment is required to ade- quately run a basic analysis, such as cell walls neutral-detergent fibercontinuously for an 8-hour period. A unit refluxing apparatus and a drying oven large enough to hold 80 cru- cibles make this possible. Technicians brromatologia to make fewer mistakes when a standard labora- tory procedure is used for all activities; and, if erratic results arise, the cause can be detected more easily.
The possibility of overlooking aopstila step in the procedure’is also reduced. Beakers, Berzelius without spout, ml. Crucibles, Gooch-type, high form Pyrex fritted glass, ml. Scimatco rubber tubing, black, thick wall. Multielectric 6-receptacle box, 20 a. Condensers, reflux, crude-fiber, Pyrex. Flexaframe hook connectors need approx- imately 36 for a set of six hotplates h. Rings, cast iron, 4-in. Clamps, pinchcocks, Mohr apotsila.
Quartz immersion heater, 1,0 or w. Figure 1 shows a section of the refluxing ap- paratus. Ceramic plates pro- tect coils from liquids spilled on the plate, which avoids electrical problems. Parts of aposti,a apparatus are supported with flex- aframe unit. Rings covered with rubber tubing are placed above the hotplate to prevent knock- ing off the beaker.
Figure 2 shows the complete six-unit refluxing apparatus, which requires a multielectric six-receptable box with a minimum of 20 a. The filter manifold is shown in figures 3, 4, and 5. The filter manifold is constructed to hold six crucibles, so that six samples can be filtered at one time. The manifold is made from large polyethylene pipe, 2 feet 60 cm. Six polyethylene tubes are attached into the larger tube. A glass lining 5-m.
The funnels are supported on a 1- x 4-in. Holes are drilled to hold the fun- nels to give adequate working room for filtering the sample. Heavy-wall rubber tubing con- nects from the manifold to two Vacuum level is controlled by attaching a rubber tube with a screw clamp to the opposite end apostula the poly- ethylene manifold. The third component of the detergent appa- ratus, the hot-water system, is constructed di- rectly above the filtering manifold fig. Water is stored in an elevated carboy reservoir above and to the side of the heater.
A closed siphon is connected with a bromatologua device seen on the broatologia of the large flask in figure 6a Water enters from the reservoir into the leveling device and then goes directly to the bottom of the well. A tube connects from the leveling device to the reservoir apostlia serve as an.
A condenser at the top of the flask prevents loss of steam. The water-heating appa- ratus is supported on one apoostila rame rod. Vinyl- ized clamps are used to allow for expansion of glassware due to temperature change.
A thick- wall hose feeds water to the filtering manifold. The hose terminates with a Y connector, fitted on one end with a burette tip end and on the other with a tube, which allows each to be clamped off. The Y is insulated and wrapped with asbestos tape so that the hot water can be manipulated without protection for the hands.
A workable water system is essential for the fast washing of the detergent from the residues in the crucibles. A variable transformer with a capacity of 10 a. A convenient setup is shown in figure 7. The water system is directly above the filter mani- fold with two sets of six refluxing units on each side.
This setup allows for refluxing detergents continuously and also allows the technician sufficient time for filtering and washing of the residues. Put Na2HP04 in beaker, add some of the distilled water, and heat until dissolved; then add to solution containing other in- gredients. Check pH to range 6. If solution is properly made, pH adjustment will rarely be required.
Check normality by titration before addition of bromqtologia. Then add CTAB and stir. Resuspend mat in water and pour into btomatologia square bag sewn from a rectangle of fiber- glass window screening of 14 x 18 mesh about 1 m.
Wash by immersion and agitation in water to remove fine particles. Store in dry form until needed. Forage Fiber Analysis jean row Enviado por: Issued December Washington, D.
Apparatus In general, equipment that is used for crude fiber may be bromwtologia to the detergent fiber pro- cedures. Samples that contain appreciable amounts of Jacket No.
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